(示意圖/圖片來源:Pixabay)

歐盟的能源部門在過去20年間歷經大規模轉型,除轉向再生能源發展,並且試圖盡量減少對氣候變遷的影響。下圖顯示,在1990年制2013年間,燃煤的能源消費下降40%、原油下降12%,但在同一期間,再生能源比例則是從4%上升至12%(註1)。

(圖片來源:Eurostat; chart by Carbon Brief)

但上圖也顯示,儘管能源配比有逐年改善,但化石燃料依然占歐盟能源消費的1/4。更令人在意的是,2014年再生能源占整體能源消費比例只有12.5%,這也顯示未來若要達到2030年與2050年目標,歐盟仍有很長一段路要走。下表顯示2014年歐盟會員國在各種再生能源消費量,這些再生能源類型包括:水力發電、地熱、風力、太陽能及生質能。本文以下將重點放在生質能。

2014年再生能源占整體能源消費比例 (%)

資料來源:Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and nrg_107a)


生質能是由具有生物質原料所產生,例如:食物廢棄物、都市垃圾、農業廢棄物、植物或樹木等,它可同時應用於個人或工業規模的供暖及發電用途。生質能目前是歐盟執委會推動再生能源政策的重要項目,對歐盟來說,它除了是分散能源供應的另一種選擇,降低溫室氣體排放,也是創造就業機會,促進GDP成長。

由上表可以看出,2014年拉脫維亞的生質能與再生廢棄物消費量最大,約占能源消費的1/3,其次則是芬蘭,約1/4能源消費來自生質能與再生廢棄物,而瑞典(22.4%)、丹麥(19.1%)及立陶宛(17.6%)的再生能源則是主要仰賴生質能及再生廢棄物。

生質能及再生廢棄物占歐盟再生能源消費64%,是綠色能源主要來源之一,故進一步瞭解歐盟及各會員國如何生產、出口及消費生質能是相當重要的。在生質能的貿易議題上,歐盟委員會在其工作文件「固態及氣態生質能在發電、供暖及製冷方面提供可持續性發展」 中指出採取平衡貿易作法的重要性:對於生質能的生產,歐盟不限制依定非採取自給自足的作法,以免影響目前與生質能料源供應國正在進行的自由貿易協定談判。總結而言,歐盟對生質能相關的貿易議題所採取的精神是,每個會員國必須儘可能發展自身的國內市場,但同時必須遵守歐盟對外雙邊與多邊談判規範。

(責任翻譯:吳周燕)

 


E.U. Renewable Energy Policies Scheme Part II

The EU energy sector has undergone massive transformation in the last 2 decades, moving towards renewable sources of energy and attempting to minimize climate change effects. Below, the graph shows the fall of energy sources of coal by 40 percent and of oil by 12 percent, whilst in the same period between 1990 and 2013 renewables have tripled from 4 to 12 percent.[1]

(圖片來源:Eurostat; chart by Carbon Brief)

Even though there is clear improvement, the graph highlights that fossil fuels still make up three fourth of EU energy consumption. And more concerning is that in 2014 in the total energy sources only 12.5 percent were renewables. It is apparent that the EU has a long way to go to reach its 2030 and 2050 goals. The table below shows a breakdown of countries with the EU and their total renewable energy consumption in 2014. Including the further breakdown of each type of renewable energy: hydropower, geothermal, wind, solar and biomass. Our focus is on the latter one: biomass.

Share of renewables in gross inland energy consumption, 2014 (%)
Source:Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_100a and nrg_107a) 

Biomass is a product that is created from any biological material, such as food waste, urban waste, agricultural waste, plants and trees. It is used for both heating and to generate electricity on either at an individual or at an industrial scale. Within the EU, biomass is a key sector within the renewable energy policies pushed by the European Commission as it is seen to be a good way to diversify Europe’s energy supply. As well as an effective tool to reduce GHG emissions and a field in which new jobs will be created and therefore help country GDPs to grow.

From the table, we can see that in 2014, Latvia had the largest biomass & renewable waste consumption making up nearly one third of its gross inland energy consumption. Followed by Finland having a fourth of its energy consumption coming from biomass & renewable waste, then Sweden (22.4%), Denmark (19.1%) and Lithuania (17.6%) counting largely on biomass & renewable waste for its consumption of energy within the renewable sector.

Biomass & renewable waste makes up 64% of the EU total energy consumption within the renewable energy sector. It is therefore a major aspect of green energy and how the EU and each individual country produce, export and consume biomass is of paramount importance. The European Commission in its working document ‘State of play on the sustainability of solid and gaseous biomass used for electricity, heating and cooling in the EU’ outlines the importance of having a balanced approach regarding a minimum and maximum share for imports. The Union encourages for a non-self-sufficient approach regarding biomass production as to not upset ongoing free trade agreement with raw materials producing countries. Therefore, each country has to develop their domestic markets and simultaneously comply with EU bilateral negotiations and multilateral negotiations.

 

Note

  1. EU use of different energy sources between 1990 and 2013. Source: Eurostat; chart by Carbon Brief 

【延伸閱讀】

歐盟再生能源政策方案(上)
E.U. Renewable Energy Policies Scheme Part I

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