(示意圖/圖片來源:Pixabay)

歐盟的能源政策相當複雜,但如果我們將它拆開來看分成幾個重要的關鍵部分,可以更容易理解整體概況。作為一個區域的整體監管者,歐盟能源政策針對28個會員國制定(英國脫歐議題目前暫時不會影響英國在歐盟內適用的權利與義務),歐盟執委會明確指出,能源政策的主要目標為以下3項:

  1. 能源安全
  2. 競爭力
  3. 永續發展

歐盟目前有一半以上的能源來自進口,在能源安全方面很難說不令人擔憂,也因此須要提供一個安全的能源供應。此外,在歐盟內部相當強調創造競爭環境的重要性,以確保個人及企業維持或增進購買力;最後,歐盟認為化石燃料不但即將用罄,也是造成汙染與氣候暖化的因素,因此歐盟能源政策的前提是儘速將經濟體轉而生產及使用潔淨並可持續性的能源。

為強化能源安全、競爭力與永續發展的道路,歐盟設定3個關鍵年份-2020、2030及2050年,並規範每2年就再生能源目標進行報告及追蹤,2020年希望能夠將溫室氣體減量20%(註1);能源效率提高20%;再生能源占能源消費比重達20%以上等目標。

(資料來源:這裡;圖片來源:EU28 Primary Energy Energy Savings-2012.png)

2030年4個主要目標為:(1)溫室氣體減量40%;(2)能源效率提升27%;(3)歐盟會員國間的能源互助占整體內部能源市場15%;(4)歐盟市場的再生能源占整體能源消費達27%以上。

根據「2050能源發展藍圖」,歐盟希望2050年能夠將溫室氣體減量至少80%(高達95%)。

在歐盟能源政策法規下,每個會員國必須起草自己的國家行動計畫,以了解這些國家如何計畫在歐盟委員會的再生能源指令框架內達成目標。每個行動計畫必須包含不同再生能源技術、各部門減碳目標(如:運輸及電力部門)、地方、區域與國家層級的政策、與其他國家的合作計畫等資訊,政策著重於發展生質能來源、以及全面可持續性措施,以符合歐盟永續發展的標準。

歐盟委員會的指令中有2個部分值得強調:合作及可持續的生質燃料。它鼓勵每個歐盟會員國與歐盟內或外的國家合作,以達到再生能源目標。並且幫助小國、發展中國家能夠尋求潔淨能源過渡階段所需的幫助。其次,生質燃料在歐盟再生能源目標中扮演相當重要角色,發展生質能除可提高生質燃料使用,也可確保在能源安全與環境保護都符合可持續性的最終目標。

(責任翻譯:吳周燕)

 


E.U. Renewable Energy Policies Scheme Part I

European energy policies are complex. Let’s break it down so we may understand it well. As an overarching regulator, you have the European Union’s energy policies, those have been created in accord with the 28 countries that make up the E.U (for the time being, Brexit is not affecting the United Kingdom rights and obligations that apply within the E.U.). The European Commission clearly states that energy policies are motivated by three main objectives:

  1. Energy Security
  2. Competitiveness
  3. Sustainability

Currently the EU imports more than half of its energy. Little to say this is worrying in terms of energy security, hence the need to provide a secure energy supply. Additionally, the importance of creating a competitive environment within the European Union is primordial to ensuring a strong purchasing power for individuals and businesses. Lastly, the EU is conscious that fossil fuels are scarce and have a big part in causing pollution and global warming, and therefore the need to transition to cleaner and more sustainable sources of energy is at the forefront of their energy policies.

The path to energy security, competitiveness and sustainability. Three key years to remember – 2020, 2030, and 2050 with a report done every 2 years on the evolution of renewable energy targets. For 2020, it is hoped that greenhouse gases (GHG) will have been reduced by 20%.[1] Energy efficiency be ameliorated by 20%.  Lastly that renewable energy makes up a 20% share of energy consumption.

(data source: here; European Commission – EU28 Primary Energy Energy Savings-2012.png)

The four main goals of 2030 are: 1) a reduction of 40% on GHG, 2) energy efficiency improvement of 27%, 3) energy interconnection between EU countries of 15% within the internal energy market and 4) finally renewable energy in the EU making up 27% of the overall energy use.

In 2050, the EU hopes to have achieved at least a reduction of 80% (up to 95%) in GHG which is outlined in the document: Energy Roadmap 2050.

Within the overarching EU energy policy regulations, each country must draft their own national action plan as to how they plan to meet their targets within the framework of the Renewable Energy Directive of the European Commission. Each action plan contains information on different renewables technologies, targets for sectors such as transport and electricity, policy in place at the local, regional and national level, cooperative project with other countries, policy focusing on the development biomass resources and a thoroughgoing sustainability measures matching the EU’s sustainability criteria.

There are two aspects within the EU Directive which are worth highlighting: cooperation & sustainable biofuels. Every individual EU country is encouraged to cooperate with other countries within or outside the EU to meet renewable energy goals. Helping smaller, less advance country to seek the help needed when transitioning to cleaner energy sources. Secondly, the key role of biofuels in EU renewable energy targets. There’s a strong push to increase the use of biofuels and guarantee those are sustainable both in terms of energy security and environmentally conscious (biofuels will be discussed in more details in next article).

 

Note

  1. Reduction are measured from the 1990 GHG levels. Which may be find here
  2. Source: European Commission – EU28 Primary Energy Savings – 2012.png

Reference

Energy Roadmap 2050, available at: here


【延伸閱讀】

歐盟再生能源政策方案(下)
E.U. Renewable Energy Policies Scheme Part II

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