(示意圖/圖片來源:Pixabay)

英國為國際生質能主要消費國,根據Hawkins Wright及The Carbon Brief報告,英國為木顆粒最大進口國,也是推動木顆粒需求成長之主要動力。下表為2015年全球木顆粒進口概況,顯示英國為全球最大木顆粒進口國,其進口總額達6,518,88萬公斤。

(資料來源:原始資料為英國國際貿易局,表格來自Global Trade Atlas)

英國生質能政策

若要了解英國在生質能所扮演之國際角色,我們須先了解推動生質能發展之政策。英國其中一部分之歐盟義務,2020年前,其最終能源消費有15%須來自再生能源,相當於2010年佔比(英國能源政策,IEA報告)的4倍以上。在其2009年國家生質能行動計畫中,英國訂定再生能源行動框架,其中包含三項關鍵:

1. 再生能源之財務援助;
2. 解除運輸障礙;
3. 發展新興技術

上述三項關鍵被涵蓋在英國所實施之補貼計畫中。

首先,英國為再生能源訂定其財務框架-差價合約(Contracts for Difference,CfDs),此為再生能源發電之固定價格保證收購電價,英國認為這項方案可為個人與企業帶來利益。

其中,同時包含了FIT(Feed-in Tariff)補貼制度,FIT補貼之優點在於鼓勵民眾與企業使用再生能源,而社區擁有之再生能源計畫則促使當地民眾使用再生能源產生之電力。FIT補貼制度除鼓勵民眾與企業使用再生能源外,同時創造個人綠色經濟投資之機會,以支持再生能源之基礎設施。

早期英國採用再生能源責任認證(Renewable Obligation Certificate, ROCs),任何屬於再生能源之發電項目均包含在ROC中,但自2017年5月起,ROC已不再接受新計畫申請,並且正式被CfD所取代,往後新計畫須由再生能源電廠業者投標,參與競價拍賣,若業者之發電市場售價高於履約價格(strike price),業者則支付履約價格與售價間之差額。

第二,英國目標建立智慧電網,以提升電網與電力輸配的效率。

最後則是推動離岸風力發電技術與離岸電網電網發展之技術。

根據上述三項關鍵,其國家再生能源目標如下:

1. 2005年再生能源占整體能源消費之比重-1.3%
2. 2020年再生能源占整體能源消費比重之目標-15%
3. 預計2020年調整後整體能源消費量-136,700 ktoe
4. 根據2020年目標(BXC),預計2020年再生能源消費量-20,505 ktoe

按照上述目標,英國訂定一系列促進再生能源的政策與措施,下表為與生質能相關措施,包括:生質能基礎方案、生質能資金援助方案、及木質燃料實施計畫與木質燃料策略等。

表1 生質能相關政策與措施
(資料來源:英國國家行動計畫)

由英國生質能行動計畫可觀察,英國政府在採取鼓勵生質能相關措施上,主要透過財務框架以鼓勵私人投資於能源基礎設施,有鑑於木顆粒在英國生質能部門所占有的地位,木質燃料實施計畫與木質燃料策略是其中最重要措施之一。

(責任翻譯:吳周燕)

 


Biomass in the UK

The UK is a major international player when it comes to biomass. According to Hawkins Wright and The Carbon Brief, the UK is the largest wood pellet importer and one of the main driver increasing the demand for wood pellets. The table of the following represents global import of wood pellets in 2015, the UK leads the importation with a consequential 6,518,880,000 kg total.

(Source: International Trade Administration; table by Global Trade Atlas)

Biomass policy in the UK

To understand UK’s international role in biomass, we need to understand policies that drove this trend. As part of its EU obligations, the United Kingdom must obtain 15% of its final gross energy consumption from renewable energy sources by 2020, more than four times the share in 2010 (UK ENERGY POLICY, IEA paper). In its national biomass action plan devised in 2009, the UK laid out a framework for action regarding renewables, this included three key parts:

  1. Financial support for renewables;
  2. Unlocking barriers to delivery; and
  3. Developing emerging technologies

Those three components include subsidy schemes applied across the UK.

Firstly, the UK created a financial framework – Contracts for Difference (CfDs) – this is a fixed price that generators of renewable energy are guaranteed per unit of electricity. The UK saw this scheme as a multi-layered beneficial system that would profit individuals and businesses.

This also included, a system of feed-in-tariffs in electricity to incentivizes people and companies to use renewables. Community-owned renewable energy schemes where local people would take advantage of the power they were generating. Additionally, the creation of a space for individuals to invest in the green economy which would support the infrastructure of renewables.

Alongside, there’s been the creation of renewables obligation certificates (ROCs).  Any electricity generating project that falls under renewable automatically qualifies for ROCs. However, as of May 2017 this green certificate scheme was closed to new applicants and was replaced by CfD. The new scheme works by renewable power plant operators biding for contracts and then they are paid the difference between the ‘strike price’ and the average electricity market price.

Secondly, the UK aimed to create a smarter grid which would participate in the increased efficiency both for networks and distributed generation.

Lastly, there was a push for the development of offshore wind technology and the development of an offshore electricity grid to support the technology.

Along with the three components, national renewable energy targets were created:

  1. Share of energy from renewable sources in gross financial consumption of energy in 2005 – 3%
  2. Target of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in 2020 – 15%
  3. Expected total adjusted energy consumption in 2020 – 136,700 ktoe
  4. Expected amount of energy from renewable sources corresponding to 2020 target (BXC) – 20,505 ktoe

Following those targets, the UK created a set of policies and measures to promote the use of energy from renewables. Below are three of the measures in relation to biomass:

Table 1    Selected bioenergy policies and measures to promote use of renewable resources
(Source: UK National Action Plan)

It’s evident from the UK biomass action plan that they have taken the steps to encourage private investment in energy infrastructure by the creation of financial frameworks that has developed markets. Perhaps the Woodfuel Implementation Plan and Woodfuel Strategy is one of the most important measure given the standing of wood pellets within the biomass sector in the UK.

Reference

  1. National Renewable Energy Action Plan for the United Kingdom (Article 4 of the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC), available at: here
  2. International Energy Agency – Energy Policies of IEA countries: United Kingdom Review 2012, available at: here
  3. Global Trade Information Services (2005). Global Trade Atlas
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